پايگاه اطلاع رساني دفتر آيت الله العظمي شاهرودي دام ظله
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  • Philosophy of Muharram  
  • 1389-09-11 12:25:8  
  • تعداد بازدید : 202   
  • ارسال به دوستان
  • In the hot and crowded hall, muffled laments are released like sullen doves and tears roll amidst sobs like dew on the petals of trembling roses. All are focused on Hossein. All are thinking about the Master of the Martyrs. There is no past, there is no present, there is only now; there is no you, no I, only Hossein; there is no fear of death, there is no desire for this world, there is only liberation, freedom and love of truth, for this is the gathering of Imam Hossein (as).
    From the youngest of ages, we learn about the tragedy of Karbala, and wherever there are Shiites, one can find people lamenting and participating in dirges for him.
     Some people have questioned the "true" Islamic nature of these acts. Some claim that it is an innovation grave sin in Islam. Others consider this noble event to be "backwards", and others, still, believe that its purpose is just to make simple, emotional people cry.
    In this article we will examine the historical roots of these observances, as well as the philosophy behind it.
    The main element of the commemoration of Karbala is the remembrance (thikr) of the suffering of the holy personages of that tragedy. From the time of Imam Jafar al-Sadeq (as) this was done through a poetic account of the events. The first majlis, however, was held by Imam Hosseins" sister, Seyyeda Zainab (as) and his son, the fourth Imam, Zainul Abideen (as). It took place on the 40th day after the massacre at the very sight that it occurred. During their time and for many years thereafter, the political and social conditions did not allow for public recitation. Hence, the devout Shiite held private ceremonies.
    Public majlis has its origins in the year 963 AD/352 AH, nearly three hundred years after the tragedy of Karbala. It was instigated by Sultan Muizz al-Dowla, a Shia ruler who wanted to publicly protest his objections to the corrupt leadership of the Abassid dynasty.
    He used the incident at Karbala as a metaphor for the corruption and deviation present in the umma in his day. The majlis of Imam Hossien (as) became a rallying point for the Shiite in addressing the injustices of the past as well as for demanding greater self-determination.
     In the sixteen century AD (ninth Islamic century), the Shiite Saffavid dynasty was established in Iran and Shiism was declared the state religion. This created a more conducive political and social condition for elaborate commemorations. In the city of Isfehan which became the capitol of this dynasty, various groups competed with each other for the most elaborate and emotional presentations. (Perhaps it is in this situation that such acts as chest-beating, forehead-cutting (ghameh) and self-flagellation came about, despite the reservation of the scholars regarding these activities.)
    But what is the philosophy behind majlis? Is it really just a folk tradition carried too far? Should we, living in the West, abandon it all together? If one examines the basis of majlis, one learns that it is actually at the heart of Islam and is one of its greatest and most sincere manifestations of love and piety for Allah, the Prophet (saw) and his pure progeny.
    The philosophy of the majlis of Imam Hossein (as) is based on the concept of free will that is one of the issues which distinguishes the noble Shiite school of thought from the other schools of thought in Islam.
    This issue of pre-destination versus free will was itself magnified due to the tragedy of Karbala because of the questions which it raised in the minds of the umma. Do not forget that the people who committed the atrocities against Imam Hossein (as) were themselves Muslims who believed in towhid (Oneness) and maaad (resurrection) and said their prayers and made their fasts. How could they behead the person whom their own Prophet would place on his lap and kiss as a child, and not feel guilt? How could they justify having stripped naked and trampled with horses the body of the man called the "Chief of the Youths of Heaven"? After realizing what they had done, how could they have not revolted against Yazid?
    The answer which appealed to the ruling elite was the idea that all things are predestined by Allah. This served to maintain the status quo. Because all is pre-destined, if the outcome of it is good, the action was good and if it were bad, then the action was bad. If Allah does not want something to happen, it won"t, and if it did, that means that He approves of it. People cannot rebel against the authorities because Allah has predestined for them to be in authority and to rebel against them would be to rebel against the will of Allah.
    A little thought will quickly reveal the false nature of this argument.
    Allah has stated "And if We had pleased, We would have given to every soul its guidance, but the word from Me was just. I will certainly fill hell with the jinn and men together." (45:13).
     Allah decreed neither guidance nor misguidance to people. Rather, He has given us faculties of thought and sensation, prophets, Imams and divine books to all to guide us. This is how He distinguishes between the faithful and the unfaithful. If all actions were predestined, then no one could be held accountable for their deeds, because they did not choose to do them. Yet, Allah has stated that some will go to hell because of their misguidance. If He made some people misguided by design and destined them to go to hell out of no choice of their own, then He would be punishing them not only for something they did not chose to do, but for something that He made them do. This would imply that Allah would be an unjust God (Allah forbid), but that is an impossibility, for it is against the refined and glorious nature of Allah. As He has stated, "Surely Allah does not do injustice to the weight of an atom. . ." (4:40), and, "Surely Allah does not do any injustice to men, surely man does injustice to himself" (10:44)
    The justice of Allah has always been one of the pillars of belief in Shiite Islam. Allah is just and no injustice can be attributed to him.
    From the time of Seyyeda Zainab and Imam Zainul Abideen (as), the whole purpose of thikr (Rememberance/Recollection) was to recall the injustice done to not only to Imam Hossein (as), but the suffering endured by all the holy personages of the Ahl al-Bayt (as).
    Majlis became a vehicle for expressing this vital and important concept of free will. As we had mentioned earlier, public majlis originated in the efforts of Shiites to assert their political rights and draw a connection between the tyranny and oppression suffered by Imam Hossein (as) and that suffered by themselves. Having a similar situation requires acting in a similar manner. So, out of the majlis movement arouse a theatrical representation of the events at Karbala, called "taziyeh". This has been one of the greatest weapons of the Shiite throughout the years for inspiring resistance against the oppressors and renewing our bonds of faith and faithfulness to Islam. The opinion of many of our great Islamic scholars has likewise supported the taziyeh performances. Fazel Qommi, the great 19th century theologian stated about it, "There is a time when it is among the greatest of religious works and this which is merely to please Allah is a great jihad and Allah is such that if a person humbles himself in His cause, He does not exclude him from His blessing."
    The principles of taziyeh are imitation (tamathul) and resemblance (tashabboh). This is based on a well known hadith by the Prophet Mohammad (saw) which states, "Whoever makes himself resemble a group is in the category of that group." By imitating Imam Hossein in the performance and by crying for him through sympathy and comprehension of his situation, one takes on the character of that pure and radiant personality. So much so, that to remember him and his companions is like having stood in their ranks and having sacrificed for Islam as they did.
    Many people have asked what the purpose of crying for people who lived and died 1200 years ago is, suggesting we forget all about it and move on. To do this would be to forget about Islam.
    In fact, crying for Imam Hossein (as) is so desirable, that it equated with the rewards of worship Allah.
     Imam al-Sadeq (as) states, "The sigh of the sorrowful for the wrong done us is an act of worship", and, "Anyone who remembers us, or, if we are mentioned in his presence, and a tear as small as the wing of a gnat falls from his eye, God would forgive all his sins. . ."
    Imam Hossein (as), has himself said,"I am the martyr of tears, no man of faith remembers me but that he weeps."
    Why do the Imams (as) assign such great merits to these acts that they become a mark of faith and an act of worship?
    You cannot truly weep for them unless you understand their generosity, courage, piety and sacrifice for Truth. To do this, you must study their words and actions, which by its very truth will instill a desire to put them into practice. Then, when you sigh for them, you will be remembering Allah and His promise of the just Kingdom to be established by Imam al-Mahdi (as), thus increasing your faith and sabr (patience) during hardship. When you recall that Allah in His mercy sent those guides and proofs of His religion to save us from deviation and the hell fire, then you shall shed tears for their monumental task and sacrifice for the guidance of all mankind. Recall how the Prophet (saw) has said that one hour or contemplation is better than seventy years of worship and Allah (swt) has stated, "Therefore remember the benefits of Allah that you may be successful" (7:69) Thus, it is not difficult to see how a sigh for those purified and wise personalities is like an act of worship, for it is actually an act of contemplation of and remembrance of Allah, "and certainly the remembrance of Allah is the greatest." (29:45)
    What about the promise of sins being forgiven?
     How is it possible that crying for the Ahlul Bayt would be rewarded with the forgiveness of sins and a palace in paradise when the same is not promised for other lesser acts (fariya)? My dear friends know that you do not have to die on the battlefield to be a martyr (shahid). You do not need to hold a sword in your hand to be a mujahid in the path of Allah. A shahid is literally someone who witnesses something, in this case, truth and towhid. A person who witnesses to truth and calls people to it and struggles to understand the truth, apply the truth, live the truth and spread the truth, is a mujahid and shahid while he is alive and will die the death of a martyr, even if he passes away in his sleep in his bed. As we have mentioned above, to cry for the infallible leaders of the ark of salvation requires a total change in paradigm and a dedication to living and dieing for truth and love. Perhaps that is why all the sins are forgiven when one cries for Imam Hossein (as), because one has become of shahid of his struggle and sacrifice for Mohammad (saw) Islam over Yazidi Islam. And perhaps that is why the eighth Imam, al-Reza (as), has stated, "If it would please you to have the reward of those who were martyred with Hossein, say whenever you remember him, Oh how I wish I were with them that I may have achieved great victory. "
    Another benefit of the the majlis of Imam Hossein (as) also creates a continuity of experience between the Muslims and their leaders, making each generation feel as if they were with the Imams (AS) and the Prophet Mohammad (saw). Consider how when you remember a deceased loved one as if they are alive and in your presence. By remembering the lives of those infallible ones, repeating their hadith and living their sunna (body of Islamic religious law), we enliven the spirit of connection between us and them. It gives us hope, it counsels us in times of difficulty, and provides a path of bravery, wisdom, generosity and patience on which to base our lives.
    Imam Hossein (as) made a decision to confront injustice and tyranny rather than be complacent to it. The victory of Karbala was not decided in the battlefield but in the hearts of the truth-seekers and lovers of Allah. The real battle was not over power but over justice and obedience to Allah and His Prophet. That is also why those who have properly understood the message of Karbala and emulated Imam Hossein (as) have succeeded against the greatest odds. Look at how in the last twenty years, under the guidance of Imam Khomeini (ra) the people of Iran were able to topple the CIA-backed Shah, armed only with the love of Hossein (as) and a desire for truth or martyrdom! It was this same message of Karbala which inspired the Islamic resistance in occupied south Lebanon. One teenager sent the mighty US Marines running out of Beirut and a few thousand men have been an inexhaustible thorn in the eye of the Israeli military machine.
    In closing, I quote the faqih, Seyyed Ali Yazdi who once wrote about Imam Hossein (as), "Is it not sufficient to cause tears [to flow] that the Imams of the Shiite faith are related to him, and he recognizes them as his own? Is not the saying of the great one [Imam Hossein], I am killed so that they will weep enough to provoke the Shiite? Are not the words of Imam Jafar who said, Brother, don"t you want to accompany Fatimeh in weeping for Hossein? Are you content that you not show your agreement and sympathy with the Prophet of Allah and Ali and Fatimeh and Hassan and the other guiding leaders who are beloved of Allah, and show that you resemble and follow the Omayyads [by not crying for them]?"
    The Inferno of Husaini Love
    The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) said: Surely, there exists in the hearts of the Mu"mineen, with respect to the martyrdom of Husain (A.S.), a heat that never subsides.
    Mustadrak al Wasail vol 10 pg. 318

    A"ashura-A Day of Grief
    The one for whom the day of A"ashura is a day of tragedy, grief and weeping, Allah The Mighty, The Glorious, shall make the Day of Judgment, a day of joy and happiness for him.
    Bihar al Anwar, vol. 44, pg. 284

    Muharram- The Month of Mourning
    With the advent of the month of Muharram, my father Imam Kadhim (A.S.) would never be seen laughing; gloom and sadness would overcome him for (the first) ten days of the month; and when the tenth day of the month would dawn, it would be a day of tragedy, grief and weeping for for him.
    Amaali Saduq, pg. 111
    Laughing Eyes
    The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) said:
    O" Fatimah! Every eye shall be weeping on the Day of Judgment except the eye which has shed tears over the tragedy of Husain (A.S.) for surely, that eye shall be laughing and shall be given the glad tidings of the bounties and comforts of Paradise.
    Bihar al Anwar,vol. 44 pg. 193.
    Reward of the Martyred Companions
    Imam Redha (A.S.) said (to one of his companions):
    If you desire that for you be the reward equivalent to that of those martyred along with Husain (A.S.), then whenever you remember him say: " Oh! Would that I had been with them! A great achievement would I have achieved".
    Wasaail al Shia"h,vol.  14, pg. 501.
    The Customary Mourning
    Abu Haroon al Makfoof said:
    I presented myself before Imam Sadiq (A.S.) whereupon he said to me: "Recite for me a poetry" and so I recited for him. He said "Not in this manner. Recite for me as you recite poems and elegies over the grave of Husain (A.S.)" and so I recited for him (again).
    Bihar al Anwar vol 44, pg.  287.
    Reward for Reciting Poetry about Husain (A.S.)
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said:
    There is none who recites poetry about Husain (A.S.) and weeps and makes others weep by means of it, except that Allah makes Paradise incumbent upon him and forgives his sins.
    Rijal al Shaikh al  Tusi pg.   189.
    People of Eulogies and Elegies
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said:
    All praise is for Allah, who has placed amongst the people, those who arrive in our presence, eulogizing us and reciting elegies about us.
    Wasail al Shiah vol.  10, pg.   469.
    Poetry Recitation During the Period of Mourning
    Imam Redha (A.S.) said (to De"bil, a poet sincerely devoted to the Ahlul Bayt):
    I desire that you recite for me poetry, for surely, these days (of the month of Muharram) are the days of grief and sorrow, which have passed over us, Ahlul Bayt.
    Mustadrak al Wasail, vol 10, pg. 386.
    Shiites-The Companions and Associates
    Imam "Ali (A.S.) said:
    Surely, Allah has chosen for us followers (Shiites), who assist us and are happy at our happiness and are sad in our sadness.
    Ghuraral Hikam vol. 1, pg.   135.
    Paradise - The Recompense of A"zadari
    Imam "Ali Ibn al Husain (A.S.) used to say:
    Every Mu"min, whose eyes shed tears upon the killing of Husain Ibn "Ali (A.S.) and his companions, such that the tears roll down his cheeks, Allah shall accommodate him in the elevated rooms of Paradise.
    Yanaabe"al Mawaddah, pg.   419.
    In Remembrance of the Children of Fatimah (A.s)
    Imam Sajjad (A.S.) said:
    Surely, I have never brought to mind the martyrdom of the children of Fatimah (A.S.) except that I have been choked with tears due to it.
    Bihar al Anwarvol. 46, pg.   109.
    Mourning in the Houses
    For those unable to go for the ziarat of Imam Husain (A.S.) on the day of A"ashura, Imam Baqir (A.S.) mentions the manner of performing A"zadari as follows:
    He should mourn over Husain (A.S.), weep for him and instruct the members of the house to weep for him. He should establish the mourning ceremony in the house by exhibiting lamentations and grief over him; the people should meet one another in their homes and offer condolences and consolation to each other over the calamities which befell him.
    Kaamil al Ziyaraat pg. 175
    "Ali (A.S.) Weeps While Grieving the Martyrs of Kerbala
    Imam Baqir (A.S.) said:
    Amirul Mu"mineen (A.S.), along with two of his companions, happened to pass by Kerbala and as he did so, tears filled his eyes. He said (to them), "This is the resting place of their animals; and this is where their luggage shall be laid down; and it is here that their blood shall be shed. Blessed are you O" Earth, that the blood of the beloved shall be spilled upon you."
    Bihar al Anwar, vol: 98 pg.   258
    Tears - Barrier of Hell
    Imam Baqir (A.S.) said:
    He who remembers us, or in whose presence, we are remembered, and (as a result) tears flow from his eyes, even though they may be in the measure of a wing of a mosquito, Allah shall construct for him a house in paradise and make the tears a barrier between him and the fire (of hell).
    Al Ghadeervol. 2, pg.   202.
    Twenty Years of Weeping!
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said:
    `As for A"li Ibn al Husain (A.S.), he cried over Husain (A.S.) for twenty years (after the tragedy of Kerbala); never would any food be placed before him except that he would begin to weep.
    Bihar al Anwar,vol 46, pg. 108
    The Etiquette of Mourning
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said:
    When Ibrahim, the son of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) died, tears filled the eyes of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W), whereupon he said, " Theeyes are tearful and the heart is anguished (but) we shall not say anything which shall anger the Lord. Surely we, O" Ibrahim, are grief stricken for you"
    Bihar al Anwarvol: 22 , pg. : 157.
    Tearful Eyes
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said:
    He in whose presence we (and our miseries) are mentioned and, as a result, his eyes pour out tears, Allah shall make his face forbidden upon the fire of hell.
    Bihar al Anwar vol. 44, pg. 185.
    Husaini Gatherings
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said to Fudhail:
    Do you sit together, talk and discuss amongst yourselves? Fudhail replied: Yes. The Imam then said: I approve of these sittings. So keep our `issue" (Imamate) alive. May Allah exhibit mercy on those who revive our issue and mission!
    Wasail al Shiah ,vol. 10, pg.   391.
    Invaluable Tears
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said (to Masma", one of those who mourned over Imam Husain (A.S.)):
    May Allah have mercy upon your tears! Do know that you are regarded as being of those who are deeply concerned about us and of those who are happy at our happiness and aggrieved at our sorrow. Do know that you shall witness the presence of my fathers near you at the time of your death.
    Wasail al Shia, vol., 10, pg. 397
    Scalded Hearts
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) (while sitting on the prayer mat prayed for the mourners and those going for the ziarat of the Ahlul Bayt (A.S.) as follows):
    O" Lord, have mercy upon those eyes, which have shed tears in compassion for us; and upon those hearts, which have been restless and blistered for us; and upon those wailings, which have been for us.
    Bihar al Anwar vol 98 , pg. 8.
    Tears over the Oppressed State of the Shiites
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said:
    He whose eyes shed tears for our blood which has been shed, or for our rights which have been usurped, or for the humiliation meted out to us or to one of our Shiites, Allah shall accommodate him in paradise for a long time.
    Amali Sheikh al Mufid,   pg. 175.
    Weeping of the Sky
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said:
    O" Zurarah! The sky had cried for forty days over (the martyrdom of) Husain (A.S.)
    Mustadrakal Wasail, vol 1 pg. 391
    The Holy Prophet and Weeping over the Martyrs
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said:
    After the news of the martyrdom of Ja"far Ibn Abi Talib (A.S.) and Zaid Ibn Harithah reached the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.), whenever he entered his house, he would weep profusely for them and say: " They used to converse with me and were intimate with me and (now) both of them have departed together".
    Man La Yahdhuruhu al Faqih,vol. 1, pg.  177
    Sympathy for Ahlulbayt
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said:
    The breath of one who is aggrieved upon the injustice and oppression subjected to us, is tasbeeh (glorification of Allah), and his grief for us, is i"baadat (worship of Allah) and his concealing our secrets, is jihad in the path of Allah.
    The Imam (A.S.) then added: This tradition ought to be written in gold.
    Amaali al Shaikh al Mufid, pg.   338.
    Weeping over Husain (A.S.)

    Imam Redha (A.S.) said (to Rayyan Ibn Shabib):
    O" Son of Shabib! If you have to cry over something, then do so over Husain Ibn "Ali (A.S.) for surely, he was slaughtered in the manner in which a ram is slaughtered.
    Bihar al Anwar, vol. 94, pg.  286.
    Gatherings in Remembrance of the Imams
    Imam Redha (A.S.) said:
    He who sits in a gathering in which our affairs (and our path and aims) are discussed and revived, his heart shall not die on the day (Day of Judgment) when hearts shall die (of fear).
    Bihar alAnwar vol 4 pg.  178.
    Benefits of Weeping over Husain (A.S.)
    Imam Redha (A.S.) said:
    Those who weep should weep over the likes of Husain (A.S.) for surely, weeping over him does away with one"s great sins.
    Bihar al Anwar vol: 94, pg.   184.
    Forgiveness of Sins
    Imam Redha (A.S.) said:
    O" Son of Shabib! Should you weep for Husain (A.S.) in the measure that tears roll down your cheeks, Allah would forgive all the sins committed by you, whether they be the great sins or the small sins and whether they be meagre or immense.
    Amali Saduq, pg.  111.
    Intimacy with the Progeny
    Imam Redha (A.S.) said (to Ibn Shabib):
    O" Son of Shabib! If it makes you happy (and you desire) to be with us in the elevated ranks of paradise, then be sad in our grief and happy at our happiness.
    Wasaail al Shiah, vol. 14 pg. 502.
    Day of A"ashura
    Imam Redha (A.S.) said:
    One who refrains from seeking his (worldly) desires on the day of A"ashura, Allah shall grant him his desires of this world and the hereafter.
    Wasaail al Shiah,  14, pg. 504,
    Pilgrim of Husain (A.S.)
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said:
    The zaair (pilgrim) of Imam Husain (A.S.) turns back (from his pilgrimage) such that not a single sin remains upon him.
    Wasaail al Shia"h, vol 14, pg. 412.
    Husain (A.S.) Seeks Forgiveness for his Pilgrims
    (Regarding someone who goes for pilgrimage to the shrine of Imam Husain (A.S.)), Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said:
    One who weeps for Imam Husain (A.S.), surely, the Imam (A.S.) observes him and seeks forgiveness for him and requests his holy fathers to (also) seek forgiveness for him.
    Bihar al Anwar vol.  44, pg. 181
    Intercession on Day of Judgment
    The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) (said to H. Fatimah (A.S.)):
    On the Day of Judgment, you shall intercede for the ladies and I shall intercede for the men; every person who has wept over the tragedy of Husain (A.S.), we shall take him by the hand and lead him into Paradise.
    Bihar al Anwar vol. 94 pg. 192,
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) on Day of A"ashura
    A"bdullah Ibn Sinaan says:
    I arrived in the presence of my master, Imam Sadiq (A.S.) on the day of A"ashura and found him pale and grief stricken, with tears streaming from his eyes like falling pearls.
    Mustadrak al  Wasail, vol 6, pg, 279.
    Neither Angels nor Prophets
    The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) said:
    (On the Day of Judgment, a group would be seen in the most excellent and honourable of states. They would be asked if they were of the Angels or of the Prophets. In reply they would state): "We are neither Angels nor Prophets but of the indigent ones from the ummah of Muhammad (S.A.W.)". They would then be asked: "How then did you achieve this lofty and honourable status?" They would reply: "We did not perform very many good deeds nor did we pass all the days in a state of fasting or all the nights in a state of worship but yes, we used to offer our (daily) prayers (regularly) and whenever we used to hear the mention of Muhammad (S.A.W.), tears would roll down our cheeks".
    Mustadrak al Wasail, vol 10, pg. 318.
    Visiting the Shrine of Imam Husain (A.S.)
    Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said:
    He (Imam Husain) sees those, who come to his shrine and he knows them by their names, their father"s names and their ranks in the eyes of Allah, The Mighty, The Glorious, better than you know your own children!
    Wasaail al Shiah vol 14, pg. 411.
    Isa (A.S.) Weeps
    Imam A"li (A.S.) said to Ibn A"bbas:
    (Once when he happened to pass by Kerbala), Isa (A.S.) sat down and began to weep. His disciples who were observing him, followed suit and began weeping too, but not comprehending the reason for this behaviour, they asked him: "O" Spirit of God! What is it that makes you weep?" Isa (A.S.) said: "Do you know what land this is?" The disciples replied: "No." He then said: "This is the land on, which the son of the Prophet Ahmad (S.A.W.) shall be killed.
    Bihar al Anwar vol 44 pg. 252.
    All Creatures Weep over Imam Husain (A.S.)
    Abu Baseer narrates that Imam Baqir (A.S.) said:
    The humans, the jinn, the birds and the wild beasts (all) mourned and wept over (the tragedy which befell) Husain Ibn A"li (A.S.)
    Kaamil al Ziyaaraat, pg. 79.

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